Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Bangkok, Thailand.
To determine the effectiveness of Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes and PAL disinfectant wipes for decontamination of inoculated bacteria on patients’ environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital.
MATERIAL AND METHOD:
Tryptic soy broths containing MRSA and XDR A. baumannii were painted onto the surfaces of patient’s stainless steel bed rail, patient’s fiber footboard, control panel of infusion pump machine and control panel of respirator. The contaminated surfaces were cleaned by either tap water, tap water containing detergent, Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes or PAL disinfectant wipes. The surfaces without any cleaning procedures served as the control surface. The contaminated surfaces cleaned with the aforementioned procedures and control surfaces were swabbed with cotton swabs. The swabs were streaked on agar plates to determine the presence of MRSA and XDR A. baumannii.
MRSA and XDR A. baumannii were recovered from all control surfaces. All surfaces cleaned with tap water or tap water containing detergent revealed presence of both MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. However the amounts of bacteria on the surfaces cleaned with tap water containing detergent were less than those cleaned with tap water alone. All surfaces cleaned with PAL disinfectant wipes also revealed presence of both MRSA and XDR A. baumannii. However the amounts of bacteria on the surfaces cleaned with PAL disinfectant wipes were less than those cleaned with tap water containing detergent. No bacteria were recovered from all surfaces cleaned with Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes.
Virusolve+ disinfectant wipes were more effective than tap water; tap water containing detergent and PAL disinfectant wipes for decontamination of bacteria inoculated on patients environmental and medical equipment surfaces at Siriraj Hospital.
- [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Patients expect hospitals to be clean, and there is clear evidence of a tremendous improvement in cleanliness and infection control standards. This award acknowledges the efforts made by NHS organisations in recent years to raise standards in cleanliness and reduce the risk of hospital acquired infections.
2010 Winner: Ipswich Hospital NHS Trust
Patient safety, including reducing the number of infections patients acquire when in hospital, remains the number one priority at Ipswich Hospital. A series of anti-infection measures have been introduced across all departments including reduced visiting times in a bid to stop the spread of infections, a new isolation ward, regular deep cleaning of wards and a major hand-washing campaign. Opened in 2008, The Garrett Anderson centre boosted the hospital’s infection control crackdown as it includes four isolation rooms where air pressure can be controlled to care for patients with or susceptible to infections. Each of the isolation rooms has an ante-chamber sterile area for gearing up, and enhanced ventilation. One has been designed for children and has space for a bed for their parent/carer. These are also linked to a sophistictated patient monitoring system. Patient Environment Action Team data reports a high level of cleanliness throughout the hospital. In the 2009/10 hospital year, there was a 49% fall in Clostridium difficile (C.diff) cases and a 25% reduction in MRSA bacteraemia. Ipswich Trust was also named by Doctor Fosters Research at its top medium sized hospitals trust for 2010.
Torbay Care Trust
Over the past two years, there has be regeneration of the Paignton and Brixham hospital sites, with the ward facilities being dramatically improved and upgraded. To maintain its high standards, Torbay has appointed a specialist cleaning team which undertakes a deep clean of clinical areas every six months, or following any outbreak of infection. This is is in addition to its existing daily, routine cleaning schedule. This whole routine utilises the Virusolve+ range of High Level disinfectants and cleaners. Monthly Cleanliness and Environmental Audits are conducted by the Hospital Matrons and Hotel Service Manager. Both hospitals received excellent scores in all three categories of PEAT, and continue to receive top marks for cleanliness.
Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust
Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust has a major cleaning requirement covering six sites, a multitude of wards and operating theatres, and a huge expanse of space. Regular reviews of cleaning were not reporting any particular problems but the Trust’s operations team believed that there was scope for improvement. The rollout of a new Cleaning Management System, incorporating appropriate equipment and training, means that Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust is now cleaned in the most effective way possible – from a hygiene perspective and in terms of the time spent cleaning. Each area is thoroughly cleaned on a continual basis, with all floors scrubbed and polished using machines most appropriate to the surface and location.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) – the ability of micro-organisms to find ways to evade the action of the drugs used to cure the infections they cause – is increasingly recognised as a global public health issue which could hamper the control of many infectious diseases. Some bacteria have developed mechanisms which render them resistant to many of the antibiotics normally used for their treatment (multi-drug resistant bacteria), so pose particular difficulties, as there may be few or no alternative options for therapy. They constitute a growing global public health problem. WHO suggests that countries should be prepared to implement hospital infection control measures to limit the spread of multi-drug resistant strains and to reinforce national policy on prudent use of antibiotics, reducing the generation of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
An article published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases on 11 August 2010 identified a new gene that enables some types of bacteria to be highly resistant to almost all antibiotics. This new gene; is referred to as NDM1 (New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1). These NDM1 are ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase). Amity has already tested Virusolve+ against the E. Coli ESBL strain. The E. Coli ESBL in peer reviewed literature is the strain that is most resistant to chemical disinfectants. Virusolve+ kills this in 1 minute and does not allow microbials to build up a resistance
The article has drawn attention to the issue of AMR, and, in particular, has raised awareness of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria.
All governments should focus control and prevention efforts in four main areas:
- Surveillance for antimicrobial resistance;
- Rational antibiotic use, including education of healthcare workers and the public in the appropriate use of antibiotics;
- Introducing or enforcing legislation related to stopping the selling of antibiotics without prescription; and
- Strict adherence to infection prevention and control measures. Including decontamination of surfaces & the environment and the use of hand-washing measures, particularly in healthcare facilities. In this area Virusolve+ can help to eradicate ALL multi-drug resistant bacteria.
Swine influenza, or “swine flu”, is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by one of several swine influenza A viruses. Morbidity tends to be high and mortality low (1-4%). The virus is spread among pigs by aerosols and direct and indirect contact, and asymptomatic carrier pigs exist. Outbreaks in pigs occur year round, with an increased incidence in the fall and winter in temperate zones. Many countries routinely vaccinate swine populations against swine influenza.
Swine influenza viruses are most commonly of the H1N1 subtype, but other subtypes are also circulating in pigs (e.g., H1N2, H3N1, H3N2). Pigs can also be infected with avian influenza viruses and human seasonal influenza viruses as well as swine influenza viruses. The H3N2 swine virus was thought to have been originally introduced into pigs by humans. Sometimes pigs can be infected with more than one virus type at a time, which can allow the genes from these viruses to mix. This can result in an influenza virus containing genes from a number of sources, called a “reassortant” virus. Although swine influenza viruses are normally species specific and only infect pigs, they do sometimes cross the species barrier to cause disease in humans.
At least 40% of current UK H1N1 deaths are among healthy adults.
HPA is receiving reports of fatal influenza cases from various sources (clinicians, laboratory reports and death certificates). These reports have been reconciled and verified with clinicians. These will not represent all influenza-related deaths.
Twenty-three of the 38 fatal cases with available information (61%) were in one of the CMO-defined clinical risk groups for vaccination.
The above data is from the latest report by the HPA and indicate that 39% of reported H1N1 fatalities had no broadly defined underlying condition. Although this level is slightly lower than the more than 50% reported last week, the reported cases will be heavily biased towards those with underlying conditions, who are the focus of almost every agency statement coming out of the UK. As noted above, the 38 fatal cases do not represent all H1N1 deaths. Many have not been confirmed and many will not be reported because of a lack of testing.
Virusolve+ from Amity has been tested and found to be effective against Parainfluenza, Avian Influenza & Influenza A (H3N2).
Swine Flu is a mutation of Influenza A. Hence we would expect Virusolve+ to be effective against H1N1.
Amity has geared up to respond to any emergency situation globally.
Amity’s Technical Director / CEO Ram Singh said ‘Amity has increased stock levels in the UK and our distributors around the world are carrying more stock to help decontaminate surfaces and the environment to prevent the spread of swine flu and help save lives in a potential pandemic situation.’
For full data please contact Amity on +44 (0) 1226 770787 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org or visit http://www.amityinternational.com/human-health/product-details/58/virusolveplus